Conservation Almanac

Conservation Almanac: Federal, State, Local & Private Lands

The Conservation Almanac contains data from the following federal agencies and programs:

Bonneville Power Administration
Bureau of Land Management

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) was established in 1946 and is responsible for carrying out a variety of programs for the management and conservation of resources on 258 million surface acres, as well as 700 million acres of subsurface mineral estate. In the Conservation Almanac we include the following BLM lands from The National Landscape Conservation System as permanently conserved lands: National Conservation Areas, National Monuments, Cooperative Management, Protection Areas, National Recreation Areas, Outstanding Natural Areas, Forest Reserves, Wilderness Areas, Wilderness Study Areas, Areas of Critical Environmental Concern (ACECs).

U.S. Department of Defense (DOD)

The Readiness and Environmental Protection Initiative (REPI) allows military installations to work with conservation groups as well as state and local governments to support defense readiness while protecting areas of land for conservation purposes in order to limit incompatible development or preserve biodiversity. By conserving land for environmental, agricultural and recreational uses, the military and its partners are able to project training areas critical to national defense.

In 2002, as part of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2003, Congress authorized Section 2684a of Title 10 United States Code (10 U.S.C. § 2684a), which allows the Military Services to enter into agreements with private conservation organizations or with state and local governments. These agreements allow the Service to cost-share the acquisition of conservation/restrictive-use easements and other interests in land from willing sellers. This is– a way to preserve high-value habitat and limit incompatible development around military ranges and installations.

In FY 2014 Congress authorized language that now permits the use of REPI funds to match grant programs of the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Interior.

Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF)

Created in 1965, the Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF) is the largest source of federal money for park, wildlife, and open space land acquisition. Specifically, the LWCF provides funding to assist in the acquiring, preserving, developing and assuring accessibility to outdoor recreation resources, including but not limited to open space, parks, trails, wildlife habitat and other lands and facilities desirable for individual active participation. The program’s funding comes primarily from offshore oil and gas drilling receipts, with an authorized expenditure of $900 million each year, while federal recreation fees, sales of federal surplus real property, and federal motorboat fuel taxes fund also contribute to the LWCF. Under this program, a portion of the money is intended to go to federal land purchases and a portion to the states as matching grants for land protection projects.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

The Coastal and Estuarine Land Conservation Program (CELCP) funds pass-through grants to states and local governments for land or easement acquisition in a state's coastal zone, and/or as provided for in a state's coastal conservation plan. CELCP was created in 2002 in order to "protect those coastal and estuarine areas with significant conservation, recreation, ecological, historical or aesthetic values, or those that are threatened by converstion from their natural state to other uses," and lands therefore purchased through this program must generally be maintained or restored to their natural state. Public access is a general requirement for this program, and the program requires a 1:1 non-federal match, which can be in many forms, including restoration and land value donation. CECLP is administered through NOAA, which is a sub-agency of the Commerce Department.

National Park Service

The National Park Service was created in 1916 and now comprises 390 acres covering more than 84 million acres in every state (except Delaware), the District of Columbia, American Samoa, Guam, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. These areas include national parks, monuments, battlefields, military parks, historical parks, historic sites, lakeshores, seashores, recreation areas, scenic rivers and trails, and the White House.

U.S. Department of Agriculture
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

The National Wildlife Refuge System of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), established over 100 years ago, has grown to nearly 96 million acres. It now includes more than 540 refuges and more than 3,000 waterfowl production areas spread across the 50 states and several U.S. territories.